Top Image compliments of space.com and bottom image compliments of Simrat Arri on Prezi.
Einstein predicted through calculation, that singularities or black holes, exist and how they are thought to distort space and time. Einstein's theory in a nutshell, describes how massive objects in space were calculated to distort space and time. A simple observation of very accurate clocks in orbit above the earth are known to run slightly faster than the same clock on Earth. The difference in time is only a small fraction of a second, but it proves Einstein's theory of how massive objects (eg. Earth) distort space and slow time. Extrapolate this observation to a supermassive black hole with gravity 1000's of times more than the Earth, and you get a significant slowing of time and huge distortion of space that is so large that light cannot escape. The calculated distortion of space created by a black hole is portrayed in the second figure, showing space as a conical structure. the amount of distortion increases with the mass and gravity of the objects compared (Sun, Neutron Star, black hole). As intensity of gravity grows, the size of the distorted cone grows with it. It is this distortion of space that explains why smaller objects orbit larger objects in space (ie. moons around planets, planets around stars and stars around black holes.
Distortion of space and time at a black hole are theoretical of course, and it is unlikely that we will ever get direct measurements of anything at the edge of a black hole because of its destructive power and the immense distance to the nearest one.
Maddalena Environmental Inc.