Dark Matter X-Ray Image Above Courtesy of NASA/SAO/CXC
There are a number of theories for dark matter, what it is composed of and why we cannot see it. The only thing astronomers know for sure is that something in the universe is causing galaxies and distant stars to move in ways that cannot be explained and defy detailed calculations.
-stars at the outer parts of galaxies are moving at the same speed as stars at the inner parts of the galaxy. These inner stars are travelling much faster that calculated, indicating that there is an additional force at work.
-light from distant galaxies and stars is so immensely distorted by an "invisible mass" that it creates additional "false" images of the distant galaxy or star. This "lensing" was 1st predicted by Einstein but was never seen until viewed by the Hubble Space telescope. The distortions have been calculated to be far greater than can be explained by the visible matter present.
-the most distant galaxies in the universe are travelling away from us at a faster rate than those galaxies that are closer. A possible explanation of this yet unexplained phenomenon, is dark matter which is counter-acting gravity on a large scale.
Dark matter comprises about 25% of all the matter in the universe, dark energy comprises about 70% and all visible matter comprises only 5% of the universe.
Astronomers have not been able to detect dark matter because it does not interact with light of any wave length (i.e. visible, ultra-violet, infra-red, x-ray, radio, gamma ray etc.).
A new theory postulates that dark matter may consist of particles that are electromagnetic. They are called "Majorana Particles" and create a doughnut shaped electromagnetic field called an "anapole".
This rare form of electro-magnetic field does not have a positive and negative charge. It is electrically neutral and therefore, has eluded detection thus far.
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